Obituaries

Wim Kok, 80, Dutch former PM haunted by Srebrenica

Then-Prime Minister Wim Kok of the Netherlands (center) shook hands with then-President Bill Clinton in Moscow's Red Square in 1995.
Peter Dejong/Associated Press/File
Then-Prime Minister Wim Kok of the Netherlands (center) shook hands with then-President Bill Clinton in Moscow's Red Square in 1995.

THE HAGUE, Netherlands — Former Dutch prime minister Wim Kok, a trade unionist-turned-politician who inspired a new breed of pragmatic Social Democratic leaders who swept to power in Europe in the 1990s, has died at 80.

Current Prime Minister Mark Rutte of the Netherlands said Mr. Kok, who died Saturday, ‘‘was a man to look up to — if only for his long service and great importance for our country.’’ Labor Party leader Lodewijk Asscher called Mr. Kok a ‘‘model of integrity.’’

Mr. Kok hitched his Dutch Labor Party to the right-wing Liberal Party and to the centrist Democrats 66 to form two ruling coalitions that steered the Netherlands to unprecedented economic success from 1994 to 2002.

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Ahead of Mr. Kok’s second election victory in 1998, then-Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom praised him as ‘‘one of the greatest people in politics today.’’

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Mr. Kok’s middle-of-the-road policies were also praised by former German chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and former French prime minister Lionel Jospin.

Dutch King Willem-Alexander, his wife Queen Maxima, and former queen Beatrix issued a statement Saturday praising Mr. Kok for his ‘‘integrity and talent for making complex problems manageable.’’

Mr. Kok defused public unease about the royal couple’s marriage by persuading Maxima’s father, Jorge Zorreguieta, not to attend the 2002 wedding. Zorreguieta had served as agriculture minister for two years during the 1976-1983 dictatorship of Argentine President Jorge Videla.

Later that year, Mr. Kok resigned as prime minister along with his entire government following a report critical of the administration’s handling of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia, when Dutch UN peacekeepers failed to prevent the slaughter of some 8,000 Muslim men and boys by Bosnian Serb forces.

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A government-commissioned report harshly criticized Mr. Kok’s administration for sending Dutch soldiers into a danger zone without a proper mandate or the weapons needed to protect about 30,000 refugees who had fled to the Dutch base in eastern Bosnia.

‘‘It was no secret that the Srebrenica tragedy weighed him down until the very end,’’ Rutte said.

One of Mr. Kok’s strongest selling points in a nation that nurtures a strong distrust of authority was his image as an ordinary man made good — a trustworthy, down-to-earth realist.

During the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Mr. Kok and his wife Rita decided to see more of the United States. Turning down the Secret Service’s offer of 24-hour protection, the Koks rented a Winnebago and struck out on their own. Their only concession to the security-conscious American authorities was to call the CIA daily from a sheriff’s office to tell them where they were.

‘‘Small-town sheriffs would begin telling their friends about the tourist who pretended to be the Dutch prime minister,’’ said Erica Terpstra, a former Dutch sports official. ‘‘Kok laughed out loud about it.’’

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Mr. Kok, the son of a Dutch carpenter, will be remembered as one of the founding fathers of the ‘‘Polder Model.’’ It refers to the uniquely Dutch brand of consensus politics in which the government, employers, and trade unions got together to thrash out pay deals. The policy saw unions agree to belt-tightening measures in harsh economic times as long as employees were allowed to share in the profits when things were going well.

A left-wing leader of the most powerful Dutch union before he moved into national politics, Mr. Kok shifted to the right of the political spectrum during his time in government. Despite that, his reputation for political honesty remained unscathed.

‘‘Personally, he drifted from far left to fairly right,’’ Christian Democrat Bert de Vries, a former colleague, said in a 1998 interview. ‘‘I couldn’t pull that off, but he believes in it. He is a survivor.’’

After his political career, Mr. Kok was a non-executive board member at Dutch multinationals, including Shell and KLM.

A self-made man from a working-class background, Mr. Kok studied at the country’s prestigious Nijenrode Business School. After spending the early part of his career working for trade unions, Kok was elected to parliament’s lower house in 1986, serving as parliamentary leader of the left-wing Labor Party.

Three years later, he became finance minister in the third government of ex-Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers. He became prime minister in 1994, when the Labor Party won 37 seats in the 150-seat Parliament, knocking Lubbers’ Christian Democrats out of power for the first time in the party’s history.

Mr. Kok leaves his wife Rita and three children.